sa im namak-n e||
im namake yerka-r e|| dak’o girk’-n e||
k’o girk’e no-r e|
This is my letter.
My latter is long. That is your book.
Your book is new.
Questions and Answers.
-à±í ¿ Ý³Ù³Ï ·ñáõÙ:
o-v e namak gerum||
-ºë »Ù ·ñáõÙ:
ye-s em gerum||
-à±í ¿ ·Çñù Ï³ñ¹áõÙ:
ye-s em gerum||
-¸áõ »ë Ï³ñ¹áõÙ:
du es kart’um||
-à±í ¿ ÙÇë áõïáõÙ:
o-v e mis utum||
-à±íù»ñ »Ý ¹³ë ëáíáñáõÙ:
ovk’e-r rn das sovorum||
-²ñ³ÙÝ áõ ²ñ³Ý:
aram-n u aran||
-à±õñ »ë ·ÝáõÙ, ²ñÙ»Ý:
u-r es genum| armen||
-îáõÝ: ÆëÏ ¹á±õ:
tum|| isk du||
-ÆëÏ »ë` ¹³ëÇ:
isk yes| dasi||
-ê³ á±õÙ Ý³Ù³ÏÝ ¿:
sa oum namak-n e||
-ÆÙ Ý³Ù³ÏÝ ¿:
im namak-n e||
-¸³ á±õÙ ·ÇñùÝ ¿:
da oum girk’-n e||
-øá ·ÇñùÝ ¿:
k’o girk’-n e||
-ø³ÝÇ± Ñ³ï ·Çñù áõÝ»ë:
k’ani hat gir-k’ unes||
-ÐÇÝ· Ñ³ï áõÝ»Ù:
hing hat unem||
-ø³ÝÇ± Ñ³ï »ñÏ³ñ Ù³ïÇï áõÝ»ë:
k’ani hat yerkar matit unes||
Grammar notes Personal Pronouns (²ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý ¹»ñ³ÝáõÝÝ»ñ)
The following are the nominative forms of
the Armenian personal pronouns:
The third person singular forms Ý³ and ÇÝùÁ have almost exactly the same meaning and
do not render
any gender differences as do the English
third person personal pronouns (he/she/it). The term ÇÝùÁ may
sometimes be rendered in English as himself. There are two pronouns to express the meaning
of the English second person personal
and ¹áõù which are used for singular and plural objects
respectively. The term ¹áõù is also used to adress
a person whith whom you have a formal relationship,
where as ¹áõ is used in informal situations with people
one knows well, on a first name basis.
The verb»Ù ‘ to be'in Present. The auxiliary verb »Ù is used in the formation of different tenses.
It only has forms for the present and
past. This verb does not have a special form for
the infinitive. This kind of verbs
are called defective verbs.
The missing forms of this verb are expressed
by the verb ÉÇÝ»É (to be), which has the same meaning.
Forms of the Present Tense
e.g. ºë ²ñÙ»ÝÝ »Ù: ¸áõ Ü³Ý»Ý »ë: Remember that the initial » in all the forms of the auxiliary »Ù is pronounced [e] and not [ye] as axpected.
So the form »Ù is pronounced as [em], »ë as [es] and so on.
Present Tense (Ü»ñÏ³ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï) As you already know the present tense in
Armenian is formed by adding the corresponding
form of the verb »Ù (to be)
in the present tense to the progressive
The present tense in Armenian bears the meanings
of both English present tenses: present progressive
and present simple.
The sentence »ë ëáíáñáõÙ »Ù can be rendered in English both as I learn and I am learning. There are three verbs in Armenian which form
their present tense by adding the ending Çë to their infinitive forms: ·³É(to come)- ·³ÉÇë,ï³É (to give)-ï³ÉÇë, É³É (to cry)- É³ÉÇë. e.g.
Note: the auxiliary verb »Ù follows the main verb when there is no other
part of the sentence preceding the verb except
the subject. Often some part of the sentence
other than the subject comes before the verb,
then the auxiliary verb is placed
before the main verb, e.g.
ºë ·ÝáõÙ »Ù Ñ³Ù³Éë³ñ³Ý: But: ºë Ñ³Ù³Éë³ñ³Ý »Ù ·ÝáõÙ:
Exercise 3. Use the following verbs in the present tense,
Ï³ñ¹³É, ·ñ»É, ·Ý³É, ·³É, ï³É:
»ë Ï³ñ¹áõÙ »Ù
¹áõ ----------- »ë
Ý³ ------------ ¿
Exercise 4. Make 10 sentences on the basis of the model
Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks by the appropriate form
of the verb »Ùto be in the present. 1.ºë Ý³Ù³Ï -- ·ñáõÙ: 2. ²ñ³ÙÁ ·Çñù -- Ï³ñ¹áõÙ: 3. ²ñ³ÙÇ Ù³Ù³Ý Ã»ñÃ -- Ï³ñ¹áõÙ: 4. ¸áõ ÙÇë -- áõïáõÙ: 5. Ø»Ýù ïáõÝ -- ·ÝáõÙ: 6. ¸áõù Ñ³Ù³Éë³ñ³Ý -- ·ÝáõÙ: 7. ²ÉÇë³Ý áõ ÈáõëÇÝ»Ý Ý³Ù³Ï -- ·ñáõÙ: 8. êáÝ³Ý ³ëáõÙ -- Çñ ³ÝáõÝÁ: 9. ¸áõ ÉëáõÙ -- : 10. Üñ³Ýù ¹³ë -- ëáíáñáõÙ: 11. ºë ³Ý·É»ñ»Ý -- ëáíáñáõÙ:
Personal Pronouns: Genetive Case (²ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý ¹»ñ³ÝáõÝÝ»ñÇ ë»é³Ï³Ý ÑáÉáíÁ)
The personal pronouns may be declined. The
genetive forms of the personal pronouns express
In English linguistics these pronouns are
called possessive pronouns. So far we have
met the forms: ÇÙ (my), ùá (your), Çñ/Ýñ³ (his, her, its), e.g. ÇÙ ·ÇñùÁ, ùá ·ÇñùÁ, Çñ/Ýñ³ ·ÇñùÁ. Possessive pronouns as a rule are followed
used with the definite article. Note that the Armenian third person personal
and possessive pronouns display no gender
distinctions. The variants Ýñ³ and Çñ are almost identical with one exception.
In sentences like "He took his book"
the pronoun Çñ would mean that the
book belongs to
the subject, where as Ýñ³ would mean that the book belongs to someone
else. The possessive answer the question á±õÙwhose' e.g. á±õÙ³ÝáõÝÁ (whose name?). Note again the useage of the
Exercise 6. Change the following phrases according to
the model. Model: (»ë)³ÝáõÝ-ÇÙ ³ÝáõÝÁ (¹áõ)³ÝáõÝ- ùá ³ÝáõÝÁ Use: (»ë) ·Çñù, (¹áõ) ï»ïñ, (»ë) Ù³ïÇï, (¹áõ)
ÙáÙ, (»ë) ·ÇÝÇ, (¹áõ) Ý³í, (¹áõ) Ù³Ù³:
Exercise 7. Ask questions according to the model. Model: -à±Ù ³ÝáõÝÝ ¿ ²ÉÇë: -ÆÙ (ùá, Ýñ³) ³ÝáõÝÁ:
Exercise 9. Translate into Armenian using possessive
pronouns. 1.This is my book. 2. My name is Aram. 3. Your
name is Alice. 4. Your letter is old. 5.
My pencil is long. 6. My notebook is
new. 7. This is my meat.
Present tense of the verbáõÝ»Ù 'to have' The verb áõÝ»Ù is one of the defective verbs. It does not
have any special form for the Infinitive. The following are the forms of the verb áõÝ»Ù in the present tense:
Exercise 10.Replace the italicized words with the words
given below. ø³ÝÇ (Ñ³ï)-How many? Model: -ø³ÝÇ± ·ÇñùáõÝ»ë: -ºñÏáõ Ñ³ï: Use:ÑÇÝ ·Çñù, Ýáñ Ã»ñÃ, Ï³ñÙÇñ Ù³ïÇï, Ý³í, Ý³Ù³Ï,
³ÝáõÝ: Ù»Ï, »ñÏáõ, »ñ»ù, ÑÇÝ·, áõÃ, ÇÝÁ, ï³ë:
Exercise 11. Translate. 1. I am writing a book. 2. You are reading a letter. 3. Armen is listening. 4. Sona is eating. 5. I am reading a book.
6. You are also reading a book. 7. We are reading a book. 8. Ani is learning the lesson. Aram is also
learning the lesson.
They are learning lessons. 9. This is an old book, and this is a new book.
10. This is a long letter. 11. That is a red pencil. 12. Who is eating meat? - Armen is. 13. Whois writing a book? - I am. 14. Where are you going? - Home. And you?
- I am going to have a class. 15. Whose pencil is this? - It's my pencil. 16.Whose ship is this? - It's your ship. 17.How many books have you got?