Spelling of the Consonants In some Armenian words the voiced consonants
µ, ¹, ·, ç, Ó, ¹ are pronounced like their voiceless variants
÷, Ã, ù, ã, ó, Ë. This often occurs after the sound ñ and
Õ. The spelling of such words should
be memorized. The following are some of these words:
Notice the pronunciation of the following
words where two letters in writing
from their pronunciation.
¹»ÕÓdekht'speach ³ÕçÇÏakhchikgirl »Õµ³Ûñyekhpayrbrothe Drills. Read the following words, paying attention
to their spelling.
in-ch e anum|| in-ch e anum usut'siche|| usut'sichehart'snum e|| in-ch e anum ashakerte|| ashakertepataskhanum e|| inchpes e pataskhanum ar'achin ashakerte || na la-v e pataskhanum||
na ara-g e kart'um| u tshish-t e
t'ark'manum|| inchpe-s e pataskhanum
yerkrort' ashakerte|| na va-te pataskhanum||
na danda-gh e kart'um| u
skha-l e t°ark°manum|| ar'achin ashakert ªshat e ashkhatum| isk yerkrort' ashakerte
k'ich e ashkhatum||
What is he/she doing? -What is the teacher doing? -The teacher is asking. -What is the student doing? -The student is answering. -How is the first student answering? -He is answering well.
He is reading fast and translating
correctly. -How is the second studentanswering? -He is answering badly.
He is reading slowly and translating
wrongly. -The first student works much and the second
student works little.
Adjectives and Adverbs(²Í³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ ¨ Ù³Ïµ³ÛÝ»ñ) In Armenian the word ß³ï may be used with nouns, verbs, adjectives
and adverbs. So it is rendered
in English in different ways differently
depending on the context:
A sentence like ²ÝÝ³Ý É³íÝ ¿: where the adjective É³í is used with a definite article means Ann is good, i.e.
Ann is a nice person, while a sentence like ²ÝÝ³Ý É³í ¿ (É³í without a definite article) means Ann is well, i.e.
Ann feels well. The meaning of the adjective í³ï changes in the same way with the addition
of the definite article.
Exercise 1. Replace the italicized words and phrases
with those given below. Model 1: -¸áõ Ç±Ýã »ë ³ÝáõÙ ÑÇÙ³: -ÐÇÙ³ Ï³ñ¹áõÙ »Ù ¹³ëÁ: Use: Ñ³ñóÝ»É Å³ÙÁ, å³ï³ëË³Ý»É Ñ³ñó»ñÇÝ, ëáíáñ»É
¹³ëÁ, ·Çñù Ï³ñ¹³É, Éë»É ²ßáïÇÝ, »ñ·»É, Éë»É
Exercise 4.Fill in the blanks with one of the following
words: É³í, í³ï, ¹³Ý¹³Õ, ³ñ³·, ×Çßï, ëË³É,
ß³ï, ùÇã. More than one variant may
be possible. àõë³ÝáÕÁ ................. ¿ Ï³ñ¹áõÙ: ²ëåÇñ³ÝïÁ
................... ¿ ·ñáõÙ: Ü³ ..............
¿ å³ïÙáõÙ: Üñ³Ýù ................... »Ý ³ßË³ïáõÙ: àõë³ÝáÕÝ»ñÁ
................... »Ý å³ï³ëË³ÝáõÙ: ¸³ë³ËáëÁ ................... ¿ Ñ³ñóÝáõÙ:
²Ûë áõë³ÝáÕÁ ................. ¿ Ñ³ëÏ³ÝáõÙ: Ü³ ................. ¿ Ã³ñ·Ù³ÝáõÙ:
Exercise 5. Translate
1.Today we have a class of Armenian. 2. Aram reads the lesson well. Then he answers
the questions. 3. I speak Armenian badly. 4. The teacher asks and the students answer. 5.The teacher slowly reads the new words
and sentences, and the students repeat. Then
the students write exercises. 6. The first exercise is easy, and the second
one is difficult. 7. -What is the teacher doing? -The teacher
is asking (a question). 8. How (well) does the first student answer?
- He answers well. He reads fast and translates
correctly. 9. How (well) does the second student answer?
- He answers badly. He reads slowly and translates
wrongly. 10. The first student works much and the
second student works little.
Spelling of º and ¾ º is pronounced [ye] (as in yet) at the beggining of words, e.g. »ñ»ë, »ñÏÇñ, »ë. The exceptions to this rule are
the present forms of the verb »Ù: »Ù, »ë, ¿, »Ýù, »ù, »Ý where » is pronounced [e] at the beggining of words.
º is pronounced [e] (as in enter ) in the middle of words; e.g. ·ñ»É, ë»ñ, Ý»ñ»É. As a rule in the middle of words
appears the letter », which is pronounced [e].
¾ is written at the beginning of words, whenthe sound [e] (as in enter) is heard: e.g. ¿ß, ¿ÉÇ, ¿³Ï³Ý, ¿Å³Ý.
¿ is used in the middle of words only in compound
words the second component of which is a
word beginning with ¿;
e.g. ³Ù»Ý³¿Å³Ý, ³Ù»Ý³¿³Ï³Ý.
Spelling of ú and à The Armeninan letter á is pronounced [vo] as in vote at the beginning of words, e.g. áëÏÇ, áñ¹Ç, áñù³Ý. Note the following two exceptions, where
the letterá is pronounced as o in an initial position: á±í, á±íù»ñ.
In the newest borrowings from foreign languages
the initial sound [vo] is rendered
into Armenianby the combination
of letters íá; e.g. ìáÉ·³, ìáÉï»ñ, íáÉ»ÛµáÉ, íáÏ³É.
The letter o is used at the beginning of words when the
sound [o] (as in oar) is heard, e.g. ûñ, ûï³ñ, ûñÇÝ³Ï, ûñ³·Çñ, ûÃ»õ³Ý.
The lettero is used in the middle of compound words
when the second component is a word
with o; e.g. ³Ûëûñ, ï³ñûñÇÝ³Ï, ³ÝûÃ»õ³Ý.
Spelling ofÁ The sound Á, which is pronounced as [er] (as in letter ) is written in certain case only: 1.At the beginning and at the end of words:
e.g. ÁÝÏáõÛ½, ÁÝÏ»ñ, ÁÝïÇñ, ·ÇñùÁ,
Ù³ñ¹Á. 2.In the middle of compound words the letter
Á is written only when the second component
is a word beginning with Á,
e.g. Ñ³ïÁÝïÇñ, ¹³ëÁÝÏ»ñ. There are a number of positions where the
letter Á is pronounced but not written. In such words
it appears during transfer. 1.The sound Á is pronounced clusters 3 or more consonants.
e.g. û·ïí»É [û·-ïÁ-í»É], µéÝÏí»É [µÁé-ÝÁÏ-í»É],
ØÏñïÇã [ÙÁ-ÏÁñ-ïÇã], ·ïÝí»É [·Áï-ÝÁ-í»É]. 2.If a word begins with two consonants, Á is pronounced between them, which is not
written except in transfer: ·ñ»É [·Á-ñ»É], ïÝ»ñ [ïÁ-Ý»ñ], Éë»É [ÉÁ-ë»É],
Often the middle Á apears as a result of vowel change: the
vowels áõ, Ç sometimes change into Á during word-formation and the formation of grammatical
ïáõÝ-ïÝ»ñ [ïÁ-Ý»ñ] - ïÝ³ÛÇÝ [ïÁ-Ý³-ÛÇÝ]. ëÇñï-ëñï»ñ [ëÁñ-ï»ñ] - ëñï³ÛÇÝ [ëÁñ-ï³-ÛÇÝ]. 3.Consonant clusters like ëå, ëï, ëÏ, ë÷, ½·, ½µ, ½½, ßï at the beginning of words are preceded by
second Á which is relatively weak, e.g. ëï³Ý³É [Áë-ï³-Ý³É], ëåÇï³Ï [Áë-åÇ-ï³Ï], ½µ³Õí»É [Á½-µ³Õ-í»É],
ëÃ³÷í»É [Áë-Ã³÷-í»É], ßï³å»É [Áß-ï³-å»É], ½·³É [Á½-·³É], ëÏÇ½µ [Áë-ÏÇ½µ]. 4.In some words the sound Á forms the final syllable, i.e. it is the
vowel forms the final syllable, i.e. it is
the vowel of
the final syllable, e.g. ³ëïÕ [³ë-ïÁÕ], ë³Ýñ [ë³-ÝÁñ]. In such words the vowel Á is omitted as a result of
word formation and grammatical changes: